Nobel Prizes 2015 -Complete List

Nobel Prize Winners 2015
Nobel Prize is a set of annual international awards bestowed in a number of categories by Swedish and Norwegian committees in recognition of academic, cultural and/or scientific advances. Nobel Prize Winners 2015 in Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine  Here is Complete list of Winners of Nobel Prize 2015.
Nobel Prize Winners 2015 Complete List:
1. Nobel Prize Winners 2015 for Physiology or Medicine:William Campbell, Satoshi Omura and Youyou Tu

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William C Campbell and Satoshi Ōmura

Satoshi Ōmura isolated new strains of Streptomyces( known to produce a plethora of agents with antibacterial activities ) from soil samples and successfully cultured them in the laboratory.William C. Campbell, collected Ōmura’s Streptomyces cultures and examined their efficacy. Campbell showed that a component from one of the cultures was remarkably efficient against parasites in domestic and farm animals. The bioactive agent was purified and named Avermectin, which was subsequently chemically modified to a more effective compound called Ivermectin.Ivermectin tested in humans with parasitic infections and effectively killed parasite larvae.Conjointly their contributions led to the discovery of a new class of drugs with extraordinary efficacy against parasitic diseases.

Newly discovered drug :Avermectin

Avermectin, the derivatives of which have radically lowered the incidence of River Blindness and Lymphatic Filariasis, as well as showing efficacy against an expanding number of other parasitic diseases.
Youyou TU

Youyou Tu turned to traditional herbal medicine to tackle the challenge of developing novel Malaria therapies. From a large-scale screen ,an extract from the plant Artemisia annua emerged as an interesting suitor.However, the results were uncertain, so Tu revisited the ancient literature and discovered clues that guided her in hunt to successfully extract the active component from Artemisia annua. Tu was the first to show that this component, later called Artemisinin, was highly effective against the Malaria parasite, both in infected animals and in humans.Artemisinin represents a new class of antimalarial agents that rapidly kill the Malaria parasites at an early stage of their development, which explains its unprecedented potency in the treatment of severe Malaria.
2. Nobel Prize Winners 2015 for Chemistry: Tomas Lindahl, Paul Modrich and Aziz Sancar

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Tomas Lindahl (United Kingdom), Paul Modrich (US) and Aziz Sancar (US) have jointly won 2015 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has chosen them for their research on mechanistic studies of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) repair.Their work has provided fundamental knowledge of functioning of living cell functions and its application for the development of new cancer treatments.

Tomas Lindahl: He has successfully demonstrated that DNA decays at a rate that ought to have made the development of life on Earth impossible. He is from the Francis Crick Institute.

Paul Modrich: He has successfully demonstrated how the cell corrects errors that occur when DNA is replicated during cell division. He is from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Duke University School of Medicine, UK.

Aziz Sancar: He has mapped Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) which is the mechanism in which cells repair Ultra Violet (UV) damage to DNA. He is from the University of North Carolina, US.

3. Nobel Prize Winners 2015 for Physics:Arthur McDonald (Canada) and Takaaki Kajita (Japan)

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The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has selected them for their key contributions to experiments showing that neutrinos change identities. They individually have discovered neutrino oscillations and shown that neutrinos have mass. Arthur McDonald Mr. McDonald is a professor emeritus at Queen’s University in Kingston, Canada. He had led a research group which had demonstrated that the neutrinos from the Sun were not disappearing on their way to Earth. The group had captured these neutrinos with a different identity at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (Canada).

Takaaki Kajita is from the University of Tokyo, Japan. He had discovered that neutrinos from the atmosphere switch between two identities when they reach earth and after were captured by Super-Kamiokande neutrino detector (Japan).

About Neutrino

Neutrinos were first proposed by Swiss scientist Wolfgang Pauli in 1930. They are electrically neutral, weakly interacting elementary subatomic particle with half-integer spin. They are the second most widely occurring particle in the universe after photons which are the particles makingg up light. It belongs to the lepton family. There are three types of neutrinos: electron neutrinos (ve), muon neutrinos(vu) and tau neutrinos(vT) differing in terms of mass.

4.Nobel Prize Winners 2015 for Literature: Svetlana Alexievich

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Author Svetlana Alexievich of Belarus has been selected for prestigious 2015 Nobel Prize in Literature.

The Swedish Academy has selected Svetlana for her polyphonic writings, courage and a monument to suffering.

With this, she became 14th women Literature Laureate and she is also the first writer from Belarus to receive this award.

5.Nobel Prize Winners 2015 for Peace: Tunisia’s National Dialogue Quartet

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National Dialogue Quartet (NDQ) in Tunisia has won prestigious 2015 Nobel Peace Prize. Norwegian Nobel Committee has selected NDQ.NDQ was selected for its decisive contribution in building pluralistic democracy in Tunisia in the wake of the 2011 Jasmine Revolution.

NDQ was established in 2013 as an alternative, peaceful political process at a time when Tunisia was on the brink of civil war aftermath of revolution.
6.Nobel Prize in Economics:Microeconomist Angus Deaton

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Angus DeatonMicroeconomist born in Edinburgh Angus Deaton on 12 October 2015 won the 2015 Nobel Prize in Economics. He was awarded for his analysis of consumption, poverty, and welfare.
The key to his work is measuring how public behaviour changes if, say, the government raises the VAT rate on food.
The Nobel Prize in Economics is officially known as Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel. It was established in 1968 and was not part of the original group of five awards established by the will of the Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel in 1895.
French economist Jean Tirole won the 2014 Nobel Prize in Economics. He was awarded for his analysis of market power and regulation.
Elinor Ostrom, in 2009 was the first and only woman (so far) to win the Nobel Prize for economics. She shared the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences with Oliver E. Williamson for her analysis of economic governance, especially the commons.

About Nobel Prize:

Nobel Prize was established by Alfred Nobel in 1895. Alfred Nobel was a chemist, engineer, and inventor. Nobel amassed a fortune during his lifetime, with most of his wealth from his 355 inventions, of which dynamite is the most famous.
Nobel Prize is Awarded for Outstanding contributions for humanity in chemistry, literature, peace, physics, physiology or medicine.The prizes in Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine were first awarded in 1901.The prizes are awarded in Stockholm, Sweden, except for the peace prize which is awarded in Oslo, Norway.Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awards the Nobel Prize in Physics, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry and the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences.Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet awards the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.Swedish Academy grants the Nobel Prize in Literature.