National Human Rights Commission of India
The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) of India is an autonomous public body constituted on 12 October 1993 under the Protection of Human Rights Ordinance of 28 September 1993. It was given a statutory basis by the Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993 (TPHRA).The NHRC is the national human rights institution, responsible for the protection and promotion of human rights, defined by the Act as “rights relating to life, liberty, equality and dignity of the individual guaranteed by the Constitution or embodied in the International Covenants”.
“Human Rights” means the rights relating to life, liberty, equality and dignity of the individual guaranteed by the constitution or embodied in the International covenants and enforceable by courts in India. “Commission” means the National Human Rights Commission constituted under section of All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights known as Human rights, as commonly understood, are the rights that every human being is entitled to enjoy freely irrespective of his religion, race, caste, sex and nationality, etc.
proactively or reactively inquire into violations of human rights or negligence in the prevention of such violation by a public servant
visit any jail or other institution under the control of the State Government, where persons are detained or lodged for purposes of treatment, reformation or protection, for the study of the living conditions of the inmates and make recommendations
review the safeguards provided by or under the Constitution or any law for the time being in force for the protection of human rights and recommend measures for their effective implementation
review the factors, including acts of terrorism that inhibit the enjoyment of human rights and recommend appropriate remedial measures
study treaties and other international instruments on human rights and make recommendations for their effective implementation
undertake and promote research in the field of human rights
spread literacy among various sections of society and promote awareness of the safeguards available for the protection of these rights through publications, the media, seminars and other available means
encourage the efforts of NGOs and institutions working in the field of human rights
such other function as it may consider it necessary for the protection of human rights.
take suo motu action, if required in a case if the victim is not in a position to access a court.
The NHRC (National Human Rights Commission) consists of:
One Member who is, or has been, a Judge of the Supreme Court of India
One Member who is, or has been, the Chief Justice of a High Court
Two Members to be appointed from among persons having knowledge of, or practical experience in, matters relating to human rights
In addition, the Chairpersons of four National Commissions of ( 1.Minorities 2.SC 3.ST 4.Women) serve as ex officio members.
The current chairperson of the NHRC is K.G. Balakrishnan and the other members are
Justice Shri Cyriac Joseph….
Justice Shri D. Murugesan
Shri Sharad Chandra Sinha
Shri Naseem Ahmad, Chairperson, National Commission for Minorities
Panna Lal (P.L.) Punia, Chairperson, National Commission for Scheduled Castes
Dr Rameshwar Oraon, Chairperson, National Commission for Scheduled Tribes
Lalitha Kumaramangalam, Chairperson, National Commission for Women.
chairperson of the NHRC
1. Justice Ranganath Misra 12 October 1993 – 24 November 1996
2. Justice M N Venkatachaliah 26 November 1996 – 24 October 1999
3. Justice J S Verma 4 November 1999 – 17 January 2003
4. Justice A S Anand 17 February 2003 – 31 October 2006
5. Justice S. Rajendra Babu 2 April 2007 – 31 May 2009
6. Justice K G Balakrishnan 7 June 2010 – 11 May 2015