Nasa plans Mars colonies by 2030s: Humans will be living and working on Mars in colonies independent of Earth by the 2030s, claims Nasa

The US space organisation NASA released its plan for establishing permanent settlements on the Red Planet, setting out in detail how it aims to create “deep-space habitation facilities” to act as stepping stones to Mars.
Nasa has divided the challenge of getting to Mars into three stages; Earth reliant, proving ground and Earth independent.

The first phase in NASA’s plan for the mission to Mars is the Earth Reliant exploration. The agency currently uses the International Space Station to conduct experiments that would help shed light on humans’ survival in space.

The second phase called Proving Grounds involves NASA reaching the cislunar space — or the space around the Earth’s moon — to validate everything that the astronauts will need to travel, work, and thrive in the Red Planet. NASA will see if it would be possible to create self-sustaining habitats in space

The third and final phase of NASA’s outline is the Earth Independent phase, in which astronauts are expected to reach either Mars or just its moon. NASA aims to establish a “sustainable human presence in deep space”
It is gathering information from experiments aboard the International Space Station, so that crews can live in deep space without health problems from radiation and the effects of micro-gravity.