Human Rights -National Human Rights Commission
The term “human rights” was mentioned seven times in the UN’s founding Charter, making the promotion and protection of human rights a key purpose and guiding principle of the Organization. In 1948, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights brought human rights into the realm of international law. Since then, the Organization has diligently protected human rights through legal instruments and on-the-ground activities.
High Commissioner for Human Rights
The Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) has lead responsibility in the UN system for the promotion and protection of human rights. The office supports the human rights components of peacekeeping missions in several countries, and has many country and regional offices and centres. The High Commissioner for Human Rights regularly comments on human rights situations in the world and has the authority to investigate situations and issue reports on them.
Human Rights Council
The Human Rights Council, established in 2006, replaced the 60-year-old UN Commission on Human Rights as the key independent UN intergovernmental body responsible for human rights.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which was adopted by the UN General Assembly on 10 December 1948, was the result of the experience of the Second World War. With the end of that war, and the creation of the United Nations, the international community vowed never again to allow atrocities like those of that conflict happen again. World leaders decided to complement the UN Charter with a road map to guarantee the rights of every individual everywhere. The document they considered, and which would later become the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Commission on the Status of Women
The Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) is the principal global intergovernmental body dedicated to the promotion of gender equality and the advancement of women. UN Women, established in 2010, serves as its Secretariat
NATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION
The National Human Rights Commission is a statutory (and not a constitutional) body.It was established in 1993 under a legislation enacted by the Parliament, namely, the Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993. This Act was amended in 2006.
The First Chairperson of The National Human Right Commission was Justice Rangnath Mishra.
The Current Chairperson of the National Human Right Commission is Justice K.G. Balakrishnan.
The commission is a multi-member body consisting of a chairman and four members.
The Chairman should be a retired Chief Justice of India,
One member should be a serving or retired judge of the Supreme Court,
One member should be a serving or retired chief justice of a high court
Two Members to be appointed from among persons having knowledge of, or practical experience in, matters relating to human rights.
In addition to these full time members,the commission also has four ex-officio members –the chairmen of the National Commission for Minorities, the National Commission for SCs, the National Commission for STs and the National Commission for Women.
The chairman and members are appointed by the president on the recommendation of a six-member committee consisting of:
The prime minister as its head,
The Speaker of the Lok Sabha,
The Deputy Chairman of the Rajya Sabha,
Leaders of the Opposition in both the Houses of Parliament and
The Central home minister.
Further, a sitting chief justice of a Supreme Court or a sitting chief justice of a high court can be appointed only after consultation with the chief justice of India.
The chairman and members hold office for a term of five years or until they attain the age of 70 years, whichever is earlier.
After their tenure, the chairman and members are not eligible for further employment under the central or state government.
The president can remove the chairman or any member from the office under the following circumstances:
If he is adjudged insolvent
If he engages, during his term of office, in any paid employment outside the duties of his office
If he is unfit to continue in office by reason of infirmity of mind or body
If he is of unsound mind and stand so declared by a competent court
If he is convicted and sentenced to imprisonment for an offense.
In addition to these, the president can also remove the chairman or any member on the ground of proved misbehavior or incapacity. However, in these cases, the president has to refer the matter to the Supreme Court for an inquiry. If the Supreme Court, after the inquiry, upholds the cause of removal and advises so, then the president can remove the chairman or a member.
The salaries, allowances and other conditions of service of the chairman or a member are determined by the Central Government. But, they cannot be varied to the disadvantage after his appointment.