General Science Biology


vitamin  General Science Biology vitamin

  • A vitamin is an organic compound and a vital nutrient that an organism needs in limited
  • quantities.
  • In 1912, Sir HG Hopkins first identified vitamins in milk.
  • Casimir Funk.  General Science Biology Casimir Funk
  • It was Casimir Funk who named Vitamins.
  • Vitamins are of two types- Water Soluble Vitamins and Fat Soluble Vitamins.
  • Vitamin B Complex and Vitamin C are Water Soluble Vitamins.
  • Vitamin A, D, E and K are Fat Soluble Vitamins.

Vitamins and Scientific Names

  • Vitamin B1 – Thiamine
  • Vitamin B2 – Riboflavin
  • Vitamin B3 – Niacin
  • Vitamin B6 – Pyridoxine
  • Vitamin B12 – Cyanocobalamin
  • Vitamin C – Ascorbic Acid
  • Vitamin A – Retinol
  • Vitamin D – Calciferol
  • Vitamin E – Tocopherol
  • Vitamin K – Phylloquinone

Vitamins and Deficiency Diseases

  • Deficiency of vitamins causes the following diseases.
  • Vitamin B – Beri Beri, Pellagra,
  • Vitamin C – Scurvy
  • Vitamin A – Night Blindness, Xerophthalmia Dry eyesGeneral Science Biology arrow)
  • Vitamin D – Rickets
  • Vitamin E – Sterility
  • Vitamin K – Delay in Blood Clotting.

Diseases and Causative Organisms

Bacterial Diseases

bacteria  General Science Biology bacteriabcteria2  General Science Biology bcteria2

  • Anthrax – Bacillus anthracis
  • Whooping Cough – Bordetella pertussis
  • Botulism, acute food poisoning – Clostridium botulinum
  • Tetanus – Clostridium tetani
  • Diphtheria – Corynebacterium diphtheriae
  • Diarrhea – Escherichia coli
  • pep  General Science Biology pep
  • Peptic Ulcer – Helicobacter pylori
  • Leprosy – Mycobacterium leprae
  • Tuberculosis – Mycobacterium
  • tuberculosis
  • Gonorrhea – Nisseria gonnorrhoeae

Viral Diseases

  • Hepatitis, Herpes, AIDS, Influenza, Common Cold, Mumps, Measles, Polio, Rabies, Varizella

etc are examples of infectious diseases caused by virus.



blood2  General Science Biology blood2

  • Blood is a kind of connective tissue.
  • Around 55% of the blood is constituted by blood plasma and the remaining constitutes the blood cells.
  • Albumin, Globulin and Fibrinogen are the major plasma proteins.
  • Fibrinogen is plasma protein needed for the clotting of blood.
  • Red Blood Cells (RBC- Erythrocytes), White Blood Cells (WBC- Leucocytes) and Platelets

are the three types of blood cells.

  • Red Blood Cells (RBC) are the most abundant of all the cells in blood.
  • In mammals, RBC does not carry the nucleus.
  • RBCs contain an oxygen carrying pigment called Hemoglobin.
  • WBC has nucleus and of five types- Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils, Lymphocytes

and Monocytes.

  • Platelets are associated with the clotting of blood.
  • Karl Landsteiner first distinguished different blood groups.
  • A, B, AB and O are the four types of blood groups.
  • group is termed as “the universal donor”.
  • AB group is termed as “the universal recipient”.