General Science Biology
- A vitamin is an organic compound and a vital nutrient that an organism needs in limited
- In 1912, Sir HG Hopkins first identified vitamins in milk.
- It was Casimir Funk who named Vitamins.
- Vitamins are of two types- Water Soluble Vitamins and Fat Soluble Vitamins.
- Vitamin B Complex and Vitamin C are Water Soluble Vitamins.
- Vitamin A, D, E and K are Fat Soluble Vitamins.
Vitamins and Scientific Names
- Vitamin B1 – Thiamine
- Vitamin B2 – Riboflavin
- Vitamin B3 – Niacin
- Vitamin B6 – Pyridoxine
- Vitamin B12 – Cyanocobalamin
- Vitamin C – Ascorbic Acid
- Vitamin A – Retinol
- Vitamin D – Calciferol
- Vitamin E – Tocopherol
- Vitamin K – Phylloquinone
Vitamins and Deficiency Diseases
- Deficiency of vitamins causes the following diseases.
- Vitamin B – Beri Beri, Pellagra,
- Vitamin C – Scurvy
- Vitamin A – Night Blindness, Xerophthalmia Dry eyes)
- Vitamin D – Rickets
- Vitamin E – Sterility
- Vitamin K – Delay in Blood Clotting.
Diseases and Causative Organisms
- Anthrax – Bacillus anthracis
- Whooping Cough – Bordetella pertussis
- Botulism, acute food poisoning – Clostridium botulinum
- Tetanus – Clostridium tetani
- Diphtheria – Corynebacterium diphtheriae
- Diarrhea – Escherichia coli
- Peptic Ulcer – Helicobacter pylori
- Leprosy – Mycobacterium leprae
- Tuberculosis – Mycobacterium
- Gonorrhea – Nisseria gonnorrhoeae
- Hepatitis, Herpes, AIDS, Influenza, Common Cold, Mumps, Measles, Polio, Rabies, Varizella
etc are examples of infectious diseases caused by virus.
HUMAN BLOOD- SOME FACTS
- Blood is a kind of connective tissue.
- Around 55% of the blood is constituted by blood plasma and the remaining constitutes the blood cells.
- Albumin, Globulin and Fibrinogen are the major plasma proteins.
- Fibrinogen is plasma protein needed for the clotting of blood.
- Red Blood Cells (RBC- Erythrocytes), White Blood Cells (WBC- Leucocytes) and Platelets
are the three types of blood cells.
- Red Blood Cells (RBC) are the most abundant of all the cells in blood.
- In mammals, RBC does not carry the nucleus.
- RBCs contain an oxygen carrying pigment called Hemoglobin.
- WBC has nucleus and of five types- Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils, Lymphocytes
- Platelets are associated with the clotting of blood.
- Karl Landsteiner first distinguished different blood groups.
- A, B, AB and O are the four types of blood groups.
- group is termed as “the universal donor”.
- AB group is termed as “the universal recipient”.